IN PHOTOS: Migrante International at the United People’s SONA 2019 (Global protest actions)



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Migrante International Chairperson Joanna Concepcion at the SONA ng BAYAN program held just outside the Commission on Human Rights compound in Quezon City.


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Marching from CHR, Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City



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Right at the belly of the beast, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


Filipinos overseas all set for global protest led by Migrante International and other broad groups

Days before President Rodrigo Duterte’s State of the Nation Address (SONA), overseas-based Filipino organizations under Migrante International, Malaya Movement, BAYAN (Bagong Alyansang Makabayan) and the International Coalition for Human Rights in the Philippines (ICHRP) are all set for the UNITED PEOPLE’S SONA 2019: Global Protest Against Duterte’s Dictatorship

With the theme “Tama na! Sobra na! People Power na!”, preparations are already in full swing and progressive Filipino communities abroad will be assembling the largest and broadest alliance ever formed not only for  the United People’s SONA 2019 but for future actions related to countering “Duterte’s Fascist tyrannical reign.” 


Malaya mov

On their website, the Malaya movement stated, “The Filipino people have suffered long enough under Duterte’s anti-people agenda, with the majority of the country and even overseas Filipinos being greatly affected by the TRAIN law of increased taxes and prices on basic commodities. The issue of human rights has caused international alarm at the number of extrajudicial killings in the drug war alone reaching to 30,000.” All actions in the US were organized by the Malaya Movement. 



Meanwhile, Migrante International will be leading most of the protest actions in key cities in Europe, Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East and North America with the theme “Pilipino Ako! Makabayan Ako! Ayoko sa traydor, bentador at diktador!” This weekend and on monday, Migrante members in New Zealand, Hongkong, South Korea, Japan and Australia will be conducting protest actions before their respective Philippine Embassies and consulates. Protest assemblies will also be convened in the UK (London), Italy and Austria.   

Joanna Concepcion, Chairperson of Migrante International said, “Duterte’s subservience to China and the US is outright treachery. Our sovereignty is being sold out by the regime so that through foreign imperialist backing, Duterte can keep himself in power at the cost of thousands of innocent lives. We are fed up with this massive plunder and bloodshed. Enough is enough!” 

Along with hundreds of other groups coming from various sectors like workers, farmers, academics, students, urban poor and the religious sector, Migrante International is set to join the main mobilization along Commonwealth Avenue in Quezon City for the United People’s SONA. 

The main broad action will be preceded by a separate BAYAN program at the Commission of Human Rights (CHR) compound at 11 am in the morning. Marching towards the stage in front of St. Peter’s Parish, they will be joined by other groups and alliances under the broad umbrella movement of the United People’s Action which is expected to raise Duterte’s violations in compelling issues related to human rights and national sovereignty. 




OFW group Migrante International held pre-SONA picket at SSS

Members of Migrante International held a picket protest before the national office of the Social Security System (SSS) on friday, 19 July to denounce the neoliberal attacks of the Duterte regime on the Filipino migrant sector.

“It is outrageous that OFWs are being squeezed to death with Duterte’s plunderous policies that rip off our hard-earned money. State exactions like the mandatory SSS, mandatory insurance and the mandatory 1-year premium exaction for Philhealth will only serve the interests of big private corporations lusting after OFW contributions for Duterte’s Build, Build, Build projects,” Migrante Philippines Chairperson Arman Hernando said.

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Rex Margallo from labour group Kilos Na Manggagawa hit the impact of Duterte’s anti-labour policies. “Aside from these state exactions, poor workers in the Philippines are cast aside with poor social services coupled with TRAIN Law that only favors the rich through tax cuts as the poor contends daily with the rising cost of living.”

A former OFW from Macau was likewise present to express disgust over the worsening roots of forced Migration. Emer de Lina of Migrante Caloocan retorted, “Many OFWs are from peasant families. Under the US-Duterte regime, farmers are being slapped with adverse policies like the Rice Tarrification Law. More Filipino farmers will be driven to look for overseas jobs just to survive.”

Joanna Concepcion, chairperson of Migrante International, said that the OFW group will join thousands of protesters on Monday, 22 July to present the true People’s SONA. “Even the OFW sector is not spared from Duterte’s reign of terror. Just a few weeks ago, an OFW-son named Bryan Conje went missing, only to be declared dead under the custody of the Navotas police. Enough of Duterte’s bloodshed! United with other sectors, OFWs and their families will march in the streets to assert our collective right to life and liberty. ”

As build-up for the upcoming State of the Nation Address of President Duterte, Migrante International will be conducting protests this weekend in different cities around the world where there are large concentrations of Filipino migrant workers and residents.

Duterte’s attacks on Filipino migrants denounced during Migrante International’s Pre-SONA event ‘SUMA 2019: The Cost of Duterte’s Labour Export Program’

Just a week before President Rodrigo Duterte presents his 4th State of the Nation Address, Migrante International held its SUMA 2019: The Cost of Duterte’s Labour Export Program. Repatriates, families of distressed OFWs and Migrante members took part in examining how the regime dealt with the various issues hounding the migrant sector.

Recognizing the problem of forced migration, invited striking workers from PEPMACO and NutriAsia decried the worsening local labour situation. In the 2019 ITUC Global Rights Index, the Philippines figured anew as one of the top 10 in the world’s worst countries for workers. Repression of labour rights and violent attacks on Filipino workers have escalated severely since President Duterte ordered his police to shoot striking farm workers in his speech on 28 October 2018. 

Venn Mediodia from PEPMACO attested to their excruciating conditions at the factory where their company’s negligence in providing protective gears has already taken its toll on hundreds of workers exposed daily to harmful and toxic substances. PEPMACO manufactures surfactants including products like Hanna, Systema, Calla and Champion. 

Disdained as one of the world’s top violators of workers’ rights, NutriAsia continues to wage violent assaults on its striking workers as it refuses to abide by the DOLE order to regularize 700 workers, many of whom have been on contractual status for over a decade. The company produces condiments like Silver Swan, Datu Puti, Mang Tomas and UFC. NutriAsia striker Garry Boticarin emphasized the importance of being active in an organized union to expose the abuses inflicted on local workers. 

With over 17 of his fellow strikers on jail for trumped-up and false charges that included robbery, Boticarin shared Mediodia’s call on Filipino migrants to support the boycott campaign against PEPMACO and NutriAsia. 


“The harrowing labour situation in the Philippine is one of the countless reasons why 6,298 Filipinos continue to leave the country daily in the hope of finding better opportunities abroad,” Migrante International Chairperson Joanna Concepcion stated.

The situation of Filipino migrants is just about as worse as the plight of local workers. Migrante International Chairperson Joanna Concepcion imparted glaring figures that describe how the Duterte regime rips off OFWs through the intensification of the labour export program. In 2018, OFW remittances registered an all time high of US$32.2 Billion. Then another US$8.1 Billion was recorded in the first quarter of 2019. This is higher by 3.7 percent compared to the US$7.8 billion posted in the same period last year

Concepcion however pointed out that the growth in remittances is still tied to the global economy which makes it susceptible to cyclical global financial woes.The 3.1% growth in the 2018 remittances has been the slowest since 2002. From 2000 to 2009, the average growth of OFW remittances was at 11%. After the 2008 global crisis, average growth dramatically fell to 5.9% from 2010 to 2018.

The disturbing slump in the Middle East is a cause for concern for despite absorbing 70% of newly deployed OFWs, a 15.3 % decrease in remittances and a 10% reduction in deployment marked a downturn in a region wrecked by political and economic unrest. As of this writing, the raging war between Saudi Arabia and Yemen sees no sign of subsiding. “OFW Remittances account to 9.7% of the Philippines’ gross domestic product (GDP). 

Despite having most of the world’s countries still reeling from the economic crisis that goes back to 2008, over 2.3 Million Filipinos were still deployed in 2018 under the Duterte regime’s aggressive labour export program. 37% landed in elementary or non-skilled occupations. 1.28 Million Filipino women were sent overseas comprising 55.9% of the country’s total number of deployment. 

“Many OFWs are subjected to deplorable working conditions that amount to  modern-day slavery. They are worn out by extreme stress and depression that takes a toll on their psychological well-being. In many cases, racist attacks, rape attempts and severe maltreatment provoke them to fight back only to end up getting jailed, or worse, sentenced to death. We have numerous cases of government neglect which only fell on deaf ears.” Concepcion lamented.

Migrante International dismissed the Duterte regime’s adoption of the Global Compact on Migration (GCM) as just another “neoliberal myth on projecting migration as a tool for development,” Concepcion noted. “OFWs are not secured and protected under the Duterte regime. Many are only getting murdered and enslaved overseas. There is no other way for us but to strongly oppose all anti-migrant policies imposed by President Duterte,” Concepcion stated.

Concepcion’s account of the Duterte regime’s failures were confirmed by Billy Dayag, the son of Constancia Dayag who was brutally tortured and killed in Kuwait. Dayag said, “we’ve gone back and forth to DFA (Department of Foreign Affairs) but we were repeatedly told to just wait. The DFA and the Philippine Embassy in Kuwait are keeping us from finding out the truth. We will not stop seeking answers because our mother deserves justice!” 

Like the Dayag family, ‘Nanay Celia’ Veloso, the mother of Mary Jane Veloso, has also raised her daughter’s case to many agencies and personalities in government but to no avail. Nanay Celia bewailed last year’s Court of Appeals decision that bars Mary Jane from testifying against her illegal recruiters who have already professed her innocence. 

In exchange for all the sacrifices of Filipino migrants, Migrante Philippines Chairperson Arman Hernando said that the government and private recruitment agencies rake in tremendous amount of money exacted on OFWs and applicants. According to a report presented by Migrante Philippines, a total of Php 16,050 is required by various government agencies to process OFW applications.

Migrante Philippines likewise criticized the additional Php11,400 in state exactions where OFWs are now compelled to “squeeze additional money from their empty pockets” prior to deployment like the three-months worth of initial SSS premium and 1-year for Philhealth premium due to the recently enacted Universal Health Care Act. The group likewise decried provisions in RA 11199 and RA 11223 which will divert reserve funds raised by SSS and Philhealth as investments in government projects inked with big private corporations. 

“These horrendous state exactions are compounded by the rising cost of living brought about by TRAIN Law and the supply crisis in rice, water and other basic necessities. Even before they get deployed overseas to earn a living for their families, OFWs are already buried in debt and victimized by loan sharks tied with recruitment agencies. The Duterte regime’s kowtowing to private corporate interests will reorient funds collected from state exactions to pursue big infrastructure projects for private profit,” Hernando stated. 

During the open forum, Jennifer Cabañez an OFW from Hong Kong confirmed that OFWs were never consulted by SSS and Philhealth regarding the imposition of increased mandatory state exactions. “With an average working hours of 16 hours per day and being subjected to all sorts of hardships overseas, we feel very upset on the way the Duterte government is treating us as if we OFWs are instant money-making machines.”

Hernando likewise blamed the heavily commercialized and privatized nature of Duterte’s labour export program for the numerous barriers that OFWs need to hurdle before they can go forward with their claims. “The Duterte regime’s ‘NO PAY, NO SERVICE’ policy on OFWs shields itself from taking responsibility in the protection of their rights and welfare,” Hernando said. 

According to Migrante, DFA’s Php 10 Billion budget allocated for Assistance to Nationals plus the Php 400 Million legal assistance fund accounts for only 0.64% of the total amount of OFW remittances recorded in 2018 and merely 28.17% of the whopping Php 36.91 Billion collected by the government from various exactions. Hernando said “The DFA-OUMWA report cited by CHR in 2018 tells us that 73 OFWs on death row were awaiting execution in 2017. In 2019, 48 Filipinos are on death row in Malaysia while up to 4,000 are languishing in jails overseas. We are at a loss as to how the government is spending this money to assist OFWs in distress.”

Asked about Duterte’s recent remarks pointing to the ‘400,000’ OFWs in China as the main reason for the regime’s soft stance on the issue of China’s encroachment in the West Philippine Sea, Migrante International Chairperson Joanna Concepcion said, “this is just Duterte’s lame alibi to justify his weakling attitude towards China. We are likewise curious as to where President Duterte drew his 400,000 estimate.” The group also frowned on Duterte’s plan to establish the Department of OFWs as it is seen as “just another scheme for the Duterte regime to further systematize its Labour Export Program.”

As for Duterte’s “bloody tyrannical reign of terror,” Migrante International cited the recent disappearance and murder of Bryan Conje, the son of an OFW from Saudi Arabia. Bryan went missing in Navotas on 2 July but then was declared dead three days later in what police say was an “armed encounter.” The police also claim that they found drugs on him, accusing him further of being the main suspect in a robbery incident. The robbery victim however refused to confirm if Bryan was the suspect since she has never seen him before. 

Migrante International concluded with the need for social justice, national industrialization and genuine agrarian reform to address the roots of forced migration. Rallying its members, allies and fellow OFW advocates to oppose Duterte’s “attacks on Filipino migrants,” the group declared its participation in the upcoming 2019 United People’s SONA broad protest on monday, 22 July. 


“The day of reckoning is at hand!” – Migrante International on the UN resolution against the Duterte regime

After much striving in the international arena, Migrante International joins other Human Rights groups in welcoming the adoption by the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) of the resolution calling for a comprehensive report on the bloody human rights record of the Duterte regime. This would impute accountability to the government as it gets compelled to allow independent investigations to be carried out so that perpetrators will finally be brought to justice. 

For this feat, we laud all groups including Karapatan, the National Union of People’s Lawyers (NUPL), and the International Coalition for Human Rights in the Philippines (ICHRP) for their triumphant lobbying work and determination. Most notably, we are very grateful to Iceland for sponsoring the resolution.


The Iceland-drafted resolution was affirmed by 18 member countries and backed by 28 non-member states. We view this development as a light that dispels the wretchedness confronting many Filipino families and communities struck by state terror. Duterte himself has admitted to his primary role in the brutal drug war killings that have claimed thousands of lives, the overwhelming majority of whom are from poor localities. 

In addition to the council’s concern on the Tokhang-related extrajudicial killings, the violent persecution of rights advocates and critics will be taken into account in upcoming probes. Tensions have been running high after the Duterte regime intensified its vicious assaults on the people’s defenders. A tremendous upswing in the cases of carnage and illegal arrests of activists and human rights workers occurred in the last few weeks.

Migrante International was never left untouched by harassment and intimidation. Right after we issued the Global Petition of Filipino Migrants which was submitted to the United Nations Human Rights Council, Migrante International has been enduring a more intensified vilification and intimidation campaign from state-sponsored hooligans. 

On 7 July, members of UNIFIL-MIGRANTE in Hongkong were pestered by a bunch of OFWs who introduced themselves as members of Makabayang Pilipino sa Hong Kong. They were posting banners and distributing leaflets of NTF-ELCAC (National Task Force to End Local Communist Armed Conflict). The propaganda materials contained hate-filled messages vilifying Migrante International and other progressive organizations that are opposed to the tyrannical rule of the Duterte regime. 

When confronted by UNIFIL-Migrante members, they were quick to brag about having the stamp of approval from the Philippine Consulate General (PCG) in Hong Kong. Members of UNIFIL- MIGRANTE in Hongkong are now verifying this claim from PCG officials. 

Just a few days later, on 10 July, staff members of our home office in Quezon City were rattled by a barrage of phone calls from somebody who identified himself as a media personnel. The enraged caller played back the Hongkong incident and kept yelling and hurling expletives at our staff, telling her that Migrante is a terrorist organization.

Furthermore, Migrante members in Saudi Arabia and Europe fielded reports about the so called “Aming Pinoy Community Leaders” seminar being conducted within the premises of Philippine embassies and consulates where Migrante International and other progressive groups are constantly red-tagged and disparaged during seminar sessions. 

Using publicly-funded government resources, the Duterte regime is keen on stamping out dissent at all cost by capitalizing on pro-Duterte groups. Under the direction of NTF-ELCAC and other agencies used as instruments of suppression, it wages a black propaganda war against progressive organizations like Migrante International which for a long time have upheld the rights and welfare of OFWs and their families. This tactic of tagging Duterte’s critics as terrorists is the regime’s way of justifying the killings, enforced disapperances, torture, illegal arrests and repression perpetrated against human rights defenders. 

Given the immensity of the bloodshed inflicted on the Filipino people, Migrante International holds the Duterte regime accountable for the extrajudicial killings and human rights violations it committed all for the sake of gratifying the interests of his fellow criminals in the ruling class. Before the international community, the victims of injustices bear witness to these atrocities. We shall not back down for the day of reckoning is at hand. Neither defamation nor bullets shall ever stop the waxing resistance of the Filipino masses against the Duterte terrorist regime. 


Migrante International submits Filipino migrants’ rights petition to UN human rights body

Citing government neglect of Overseas Filipino Workers and the rampant extrajudicial killings in the country, Migrante International submitted its Global Petition of Filipino Migrants to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on Tuesday, 9 July 2019. The petition aims to call the attention of the international body to the “gross human rights violations committed against Filipino migrants by the government of Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte.”

The petition expressed support to the call of the 11 UN Special Rapporteurs for an independent investigation into the increasing rights violations in the country. Support for the call has been mounting. In 4 July, Iceland issued a draft resolution signed by 28 UN-member states asking the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) to impose concrete actions on the killings linked to Duterte’s so called “war on drugs.”

Filipino migrants and families are not spared from extrajudicial killings perpetrated by state forces. In 16 August 2017, Kian delos Santos, a 17-year old son of a Saudi-based domestic helper was dragged across a dark alley beside the creek where he was brutally shot by police operatives. 

In the same month last year, OFW and cancer-patient Allan Rafael was mugged by Manila police during a checkpoint. He was then taken into custody for alleged possession of illegal drugs. According to Rafael’s family, the police’s allegations were based on planted fake evidence and his frail physical appearance. After being subjected to severe torture inside detention, he was declared dead after four days. Prior to his death, Rafael has been pale and weak after undergoing months of chemotherapy for his cancer ailment. 


Photo: Bulatlat

Several weeks after Rafael’s murder, President Duterte admitted before national television that his only “sin” are the extrajudicial killings. “Ang kasalanan ko lang, yung mga extrajudicial killings (My only sin are the extrajudicial killings),” Duterte confessed at a gathering in the Presidential palace in September 2018. Human rights groups say that the admission added weight to the preliminary investigations conducted by the International Criminal Court last year. 

Based on a document dubbed #RealNumbers released by the Philippine National Police (PNP), the death toll from the Duterte regime’s “war on drugs” has already exceeded 20,000 as of September 2017. Migrante International Chairperson Joanna Concepcion expressed her group’s outrage to the soaring number of killings that likewise hit the migrant sector. “Aside from the brutal state-sponsored killings and violence that struck OFW families back home, Filipino migrants are also battered by government-imposed attacks on our economic and social rights. It is high time that the United Nations respond to the outcry from the families victimized by the Duterte regime.”

The petition likewise cited the Duterte regime’s labour export program. “Instead of providing a comprehensive and genuine economic program that focuses on creating domestic jobs to end the cycle of forced migration, President Duterte has intensified its economic policy of exporting its own people as cheap labor,” the petition stated.

“Through the Duterte regime’s labour export program, the government has been imposing unjust state exactions as its way of subjecting OFWs to legalized robbery. A Filipino migrant worker already wallows in debt even before she is deployed overseas and whenever they get mistreated abroad, they are often left neglected or coerced by government agencies to keep silent and relinquish their demands for justice, ” Migrante International Chairperson Joanna Concepcion lamented.

Furthermore, Migrante International brought up in the petition the 81 Filipino migrants currently on death row as well as the numerous cases of unsolved deaths and detention. The case of trafficking victim Mary Jane Veloso was also raised as Philippine authorities continually refuse to allow her to give testimony. 

Violent attacks on human rights workers and progressive organizations were likewise presented in the petition. It says, “People’s organizations that have for decades defended and supported the rights and welfare of Filipino people and migrants are being systematically attacked through unscrupulous government regulations, red-tagging, financial witch-hunt and other forms of harassment.” 

“We demand an end to the violation of our collective human rights and hold the Duterte government accountable. We urgently plead with the United Nations Human Rights Council to conduct an independent investigation into the human rights violations committed by the Philippine Duterte government,” the petition concluded.

Signatures of Migrante International’s Executive Committee were indicated in the submitted petition. This is only the first submission as the group is continually gathering signatures worldwide to be submitted later to the UNHRC.. A copy was made available online after the petition’s official launching held in Hongkong on 30 June 2019 when hundreds of Filipino migrants and allies from other countries staged a protest action in Chater road and an indignation march before the Philippine Consulate.  


Sigh of relief after mothers and toddlers detained in Malaysia arrived back in PH — Migrante International

Mixed emotions filled the group of deportees from Malaysia during the night of their arrival on 3 July 2019 at NAIA Terminal 1 around 9:40 PM. After spending weeks trembling in fear and torment, they are relieved to finally get back home and be reunited with their loved ones. The four children were clearly gripped by exhaustion as their mothers found themselves brooding spasmodically over the uncertainties that await them. With almost all of their belongings looted by wardens and immigration officers at Bukit Jalil, they only managed to carry with them small shoulder bags. 

Their bafflement were slightly cut short after volunteers and staff members from Migrante International and Churches Witnessing With Migrants (CWWM) ushered in to greet them. They were glad to know that these groups worked closely with Tenaganita, a migrant-centre based in Malaysia that dealt directly with the case of the detained mothers and toddlers. Like Migrante International, Tenaganita is also an active member of the International Migrants Alliance or IMA. 

Holding back their tears, the mothers recounted their 2-week ordeal at the Bukit Jalil Immigration Detention Centre. Ralyn (not her real name) can never forget how “muster” or routine inspections every 5 minutes from 7AM to 12AM midnight were led by barking detention wardens and spiteful immigration officers. Detainees were fed with “stale and burnt food good for swines,” Ralyn revealed.  

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Enny and Anita (real names withheld) described their cells as cramped and filthy. They were made to lie down on the cold floor surface and nobody was allowed to use any sleeping mats. Even scraps of cardboard which they used to fan themselves and cover the floor get confiscated. 

Immigration detainees had only one set of clothes which they had to wash and wear every other day. “We wore the same clothes that we had been wearing on the night we were arrested,” Enny exclaimed. Those who got some cash to spare were able to purchase low quality clothes sold inside the facility. Even then, they still have to choose conserving the little money that they have so they can buy bottled waters or risk getting dehydrated by extreme heat and thirst. 

“Our rights as humans were violated! The female wardens acted as if they are not mothers themselves. They were vile and mean, treated us like animals. All the children always get terrified when they’re around,” Ralyn said.  

Non-married or single detainees are constantly in handcuffs and any detainee inside the facility that is seen by immigration wardens as misbehaving is dealt with severely. The mothers recalled how a female detainee from Kenya who has been showing signs of Psychosis was tied to the wall with both hands and was made to stand the whole day. 

Children are not spared from verbal abuse by growling wardens and immigration officers. Many of the young detainees were in need of medical attention. Migrante International in an earlier statement cited scientific studies that showed how “children subjected to these kinds of excruciating ordeal are certainly susceptible to psychological stress and emotional trauma which can lead to life-long behavioral consequences.”

“Almost all of the detainees are from poor countries,” Anita said. According to Ralyn, most of their fellow detainees are from countries like Myanmar, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Kenya and Nigeria. 

When asked for their future plans, the mothers said that going back overseas is still in the offing since they are not expecting to get decent paying jobs in the Philippines. 

Time and again, Migrante International has underscored the need for regular and stable employment for Filipinos in their own country. “Aside from the poor level of social services, Filipino workers are stricken by anti-labour policies like contractualization and the regionalization of the minimum wage. Labour conditions have worsened under the Duterte regime,” Migrante International Chairperson Joanna Concepcion stated. 

“Coming back to the Philippines presents the same problems of instability and peril to returning OFWs and migrant children. We have a Fascist president who violates the rights of Filipino children either through his fake war on drugs or through Martial Law in Mindanao,” Concepcion added referring to the recent case of the 3-year old girl in Rizal Province who became the latest victim of the Duterte regime’s drug war. More than 100 children have already been killed since Duterte’s “bloody campaign” started in 2016.

On the same night after their arrival, the mothers boarded provincial buses headed to their respective hometowns in Bataan and Laguna. Ralyn chose to stay overnight in Manila at a place offered to her by CWWM inside the NCCP (National Council of Churches in the Philippines) compound before travelling to Bulacan the following morning. The mothers expressed their overwhelming gratitude to Tenaganita for the fervent assistance accorded to them. Migrante International vowed to continue working with allies like Tenaganita to uphold the rights and welfare of migrants and their families as well as carrying forward its efforts to expose and exact justice from the rights violations committed by the authorities of the host countries and the Duterte regime.